What is the OCS-R?

The OCS-R is an observation based tool for assessing the communicative competencies of children, adolescents, and adults with complex communication needs. Its basic idea is a multi-perspective approach.


Who is the target group of the OCS-R?

The OCS-R can be used to determine the communicative competencies and forms of expressions of children, adolescents, and adults who have complex communication needs and experience difficulties in their communication development.


What is the aim of the OCS-R?

Using the OCS-R different caregivers (e.g., teachers, therapists, parents) can assess the communicative competencies of children, adolescents, and adults. The analysis allows a comparison of their different perspectives. The aim of the analysis is to reveal similarities and differences in the assessment of each individual caregiver and to utilize these as a basis for support.


Why do I need Excel for analyzing the OCS-R?

Programming an analysis on an independent platform is very complex and expensive. Unfortunately, the OCS-R team currently does not have the financial resources that are necessary. Using Excel, the team is able to generate a tool for analysis and can constantly refine it.


I do not have Excel. Does it still make sense to use the OCS-R?

It is not ideal to forgo the analysis. Nevertheless, the questionnaire itself can still provide important suggestions for observing communicative behavior and generate ideas for intervention.


The Excel file does not work. What can I do?

You need at least Excel 2010. Furthermore, the functioning of the Excel file depends on your security settings. If you open the evaluation file for the first time, you may be informed by Excel through a yellow header that the file originated from an online location. You can use the evaluation only by clicking on „Enable Editing“.


What is the latest version of the OCS-R?

The latest version of the OCS-R as of April 2019 is 1.06. Please only use the latest version.


Can I use older versions of the OCS-R?

We are continuously developing and improving the OCS-R. Older versions of the questionnaire or the Excel analysis file contain errors or are not up to date with our latest findings. Therefore, they should not be used anymore. Please download the latest version in our download area.


Am I allowed to print and pass on the OCS-R as often as I want?

We decided that we do not want to distribute the OCS-R commercially. As long as you refer to us as the authors you are welcome to download and print out the questionnaire, the manual and the Excel file any number of times. You can also pass it on to colleagues, friends, or acquaintances and use it for an unlimited amount of time:


Creative Commons License
The OCS-R is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


What is the theoretical framework of the OCS-R?

Theoretically, the instrument is rooted within the constructivist epistemology of Glasersfeld (1995, 2007). In this view people do not perceive an objective reality, instead reality is highly subjective based on the individual construction of meaning within the brain. Referring to this, it is not possible to objectively diagnose the competencies of a person based on observation. Diagnostic, therefore, has to take a look at subjective views as an important perspective beside traditional testing. Because of that, the OCS-R allows to compare different perspectives and perceptions of important persons in the individual`s social setting (e.g. teachers, parents, etc.) in order to identify and visualize agreement and differences in their assessments. The identification of similarities and differences in the perception of people or in varying contexts can then be used to systematically plan intervention. The theoretical reference points of the individual OCS-R modules can be found in the respective sections of the manual.


I would like to cite content from the questionnaire or the manual – how can I cite those?

OCS-R Questionnaire:

Scholz, M., Wagner, M., & Stegkemper, J. M. (2019). Questionnaire for Observing Communicative Skills - Revision (OCS-R version 1.06). University of Education Ludwigsburg and University of Koblenz-Landau. Retrieved from www.ocs-r.com


OCS-R Manual:

Scholz, M., Wagner, M., & Stegkemper, J. M. (2019). OCS-R Manual (Version 1.06). University of Education Ludwigsburg and University of Koblenz-Landau. Retrieved from www.ocs-r.com